Yoga in GoaYoga in Goa


There are five Yam. Patanjali Yoga has described. These Yam direct about how a common man should behave in the society. However, Hathapradeepika has described ten Yam. Niyam follow Yam, which are stated in the beginning, and Niyam guide regarding the individual behaviour. That means the points to be observed while being in society are given first and then the points about the personal behaviour. This also indicates that the Yoga has considered the society first and then the individual. The following are the five Yam:

Tatrahimsasatyasteyabrahmacharyaparigraha yamh || P Y S 2.30

Yama (Principles or moral code)
  1. Ahimsa - A principle of non-violence
  2. Satya - A principle of Truthfulness
  3. Asteya - A principle of non stealing
  4. Brahmacharya - Continence / celibacy
  5. Aparigah - A principle of non-hoarding or non possessiveness
Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha are the five Yam. The text does not describe them further, but we will go in detail.
Ahimsa (Non Violence):
Ahimsa means not to kill anyone. Killing generates pain; hence ahimsa can mean not to cause pain to anyone. Yoga demands ahimsa in totality. That means, himsa does not mean only killing or hitting anyone. That is a limited meaning of the word or only physical aspect. To hurt someone mentally is also a himsa. That is oral himsa. Yoga also states further that even thinking ill of someone is also a himsa, which is a mental himsa. Hence, ahimsa covers all aspects such as physical, oral, mental. This indicates the greatness of the depth of the science of yoga. Patanjali Yoga aphorism states the results of following such ahimsa:

Ahimsa pratishthayam tatsannidhou vairatyagah || P Y S 2-35

One, who observes ahimsa, succeeds in eliminating feelings of enmity. If ahimsa is followed for a long time, not only the sadhak, but even his surroundings are affected and enmity is eliminated in the minds of all who come in contact with him. Thus, ahimsa is not only elimination of physical, mental, oral hurt, but also wiping out the feelings of enmity. The surroundings of such a sadhak are also changed effectively.
Thus, for Yoga studies such high degree ahimsa is prescribed. However, not all Yoga Sadhak aspire for Samadhi. Their expectations from the yoga studies are limited. From their point of view such great ahimsa may not be able to be observed continuously. Hence, in day-to-day life it should be considered how far such ahimsa is to be observed. A common man may not be able to follow ahimsa in entirety.
If we consider the example of fishermen, their basic activity is fishing from the sea and sale of the produce. If he decides to follow the principle, he will not be able to carry on his daily activity. Hence, for him, he may not be able to follow the principle of ahimsa and he is not expected also to follow it. However, those who desire to progress further in Yoga should shun all such activities. Initially, one may not be able to observe total ahimsa. However, one should constantly keep the definition of ahimsa in mind and try to follow it. All the activities should be analysed in the mind to determine what kind of himsa, physical, oral, mental arises from one's activity. After analysis, it may be found that at times, certain activities generate himsa, which can be easily avoided. Then the mind and the body can be trained to avoid such activity. Such training is the first step towards following ahimsa entirely.
Satya (Truthfulness):
Satya should also be considered in depth. It does not only cover speaking the truth. Proper understanding of the talk and the mind is the truth. Here, proper means exactly what is seen, understood or heard, the same thing should be followed by our tendency to talk and also by the mind. When we try to explain something to others, the conversation if it generates doubts or if it is not understood correctly by others, or if it is of no use to others, then that is not truth, even if it is true. Also, God has created our tongue for the benefit of all and not for destruction. So the truth, which results in the destruction of someone or something, is also not the truth. Mahabharata has analysed and classified the truth as under: Silence is greater than the speech, true speech is greater than the silence, speech as per one's dharma is greater than it and the true speech according to dharma and which is pleasurable and useful to others is the greatest.
Patanjali Rishi has stated the results of the truth as under:

Satyapratishthayam kriyaphalashrayatvam || P Y S 2-36

With constant following of the truth and the commensurate behaviour, one gets vacha siddhi. That means without performing any religious rites, the results of the karma accrue to him and to others due to his speech and blessings.
Asteya (Honesty):
Steya means theft. Asteya means not stealing anything. However, asteya has a comprehensive meaning and is not limited to not stealing something from the other and keeping it in possession. It means not keeping anything with self, which does not belong to the self. If one finds something lying on the street and picks it up thinking that no one has seen him and since that was lying on the street, some one is bound to pick it up, then why not me, and then that is also a theft. Picking up or possessing something, which does not have any owner, is also a theft. When one sees some money lying on the deserted street, there is a desire to pick it up. However, then the conscience starts pricking one that the money does not belong to him and hence should not be picked up. The other mind says that why not pick it up, if not me, someone else is bound to pick it up. The battle of the two minds starts increasing the heartbeats. If the bad conscience wins, then the intelligence propels the body to pick it up. But yet the good conscience keeps on advising against it. The money is picked up, but only after losing the calmness of the mind and after increasing the heart beats. There is an increasing pressure on the mind even after the money is picked up. The mind is disturbed; there is no concentration in work. When this becomes unbearable, one decides to donate the money somewhere, which will reduce the disturbance to some extent. Again while depositing the money in a temple or at some religious place, the heartbeats increase imagining the questions that may be raised by someone else. When ultimately it is deposited and one is free, the mind becomes calm and quiet and the pressure disappears. This process can be viewed in start of theft. The pressure generated in the process does have bad effects on the body and the internal glands. If asteya is observed, the body and the mind do not have to undergo such strain. This is the meaning and conclusion of asteya.
This is an effect of the actual physical process of theft. But even if a thought of the theft peeps into the mind, it can affect the mental and thereby the physical health. If the electronic impulses generated through the brain are measured with the help of a machine, it is observed that there are wide changes while being in such a state. Hence, yoga states that one should not even imagine the theft. The following aphorism states the effects:

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